We have rated PavoCoin as “Stable+”.
PavoCoin is a blockchain platform designed initially for the cannabis industry but servicing the entire general agricultural market. The PavoCoin team have developed their loT Ag-Tech software in order to help producers (gardeners) increase crop yield and profit. It is also designed to improve product quality and optimize the crop cultivation and distribution process, as well as facilitate future supply planning.
All ecosystem participants will be using the PAVO cryptocurrency for transactions, ensuring payment safety and security. The currency will also eliminate the risks associated with termination of cannabis ecosystem participants’ bank accounts.
A fully-developed Pavo IоT Ag-Tech solution is now being tested in two indoor grow houses in California. The company’s strategy is to expand horizontally across the indoor farming market to service all vertical indoor farming crops. The team views IoT and blockchain technology as a means to shorten crop cycle times and thereby increase annual indoor farm yields.
PavoCoin’s team consists of experienced experts from various fields and with different backgrounds. The team have been working together for several years, which is definitely an advantage. Another undeniable perk is that the team are receiving cannabis-related legal advice from Sideman & Bancroft. Walder Wyss Ltd (Switzerland) and Paul Hastings LLP (the USA) provide their services to support the launch and management of the ICO.
The project has the following advantages in addition to those stated above:
- A sensible and well-thought-out marketing concept designed to attract new users to the platform and ensure the success of Pavo’s IоT Ag-Tech solution in the market. At the forefront of the marketing campaign is financial support for installation and operation of Pavo IоT Ag-Tech.
- Stimulation of PAVO token usage by platform participants.
However, we wish to highlight several shortcomings:
- there are some factors that could lead to token price drop. Refer to the section ‘Analysis of factors affecting the token’s future price’ for a detailed description.
- there are some investment risks, i.e. the tokens might not be listed on exchanges, the product might not be able to obtain the desired cannabis and agricultural market share. Plus, there are some legal risks. Refer to the section ‘Investment risks analysis’ for a detailed description.
General Information about the Project and ICO
The Pavo platform will be employing two blockchain frameworks: Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric. It is designed to be used in the agricultural business, in particular the cannabis industry. The services and apps will operate on the Ethereum blockchain. The Hyperledger Fabric blockchain will ensure IoT (Internet of Things) data access control.
Pavo includes two main components:
- A fee-based hardware and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) platform for growers;
- A cryptocurrency for ecosystem participants.
Smart contract platform: Ethereum blockchain
Contract type: ERC20
Soft cap: $1,000,000
Hard cap: $65,000,000
Total token supply: 200,000,000
No additional emissions are envisaged.
Standard exchange rate: 1 PavoCoin = 1 USD.
Issued tokens allocation:
Fundraising consists of two stages:
Start date: April 12, 2018
End date: June 11th 2018
Bonus: 33% for minimum $5000 purchase.
45% for minimum $10,000 purchase.
Minimum transaction: $5000.
Start date: June 12, 2018.
End date: July 14, 2018.
From June 12 to June 16 – 25%
From June 17 to June 23 – 18%
From June 24 to June 30 – 11%
From July 1 to July 7 – 5%
Minimum transaction amount: Only if using fiat currency: $1000, otherwise none.
Accepted currencies: BTC, ETHER, LITECOIN, BITCOIN CASH, DASH, ZCASH, USD.
The funds raised during the token sale will be allocated as follows:
Description of the Services and Scope of the Project
The Pavo platform is designed to facilitate remote hi-tech automated crop production and further distribution. The Pavo marketplace is intended for farmers, consumers and suppliers of various agricultural goods. The team’s first priority is the cannabis industry. Other domains include tree nuts, industrial crops, legumes, vegetable and grain crops.
As the white paper states, the team is using two indoor grow houses in California USA to test and improve the fully-fledged IoT platform. The team has also deployed at one outdoor almond farm in the Northern California Central Valley, with two more scheduled. In the future, producers will have access to wireless sensors for lighting, air temperature, soil moisture, air cooling, contamination, water quality parameters (ph, ORP, salinity), and system performance sensors. As the founders explain, these sensors will be employing LoRa and LoRaWAN technologies for data transmission. Pavo’s developers have designed adaptors that can be integrated with multiple off-site irrigation, lighting and cultivation systems. Platform users will be able to monitor and edit sensor data via a web browser or mobile app. Producers will be provided, inter alia, with analyses, reports and recommendations on crop cultivation and the optimization of distribution, storage and supply. They will also be able to track their expenses and employee productivity. All recommendations will be personalized. This is supposed to help reduce expenses associated with power and water supply, consumables and maintenance.
All production and transaction data will be processed employing blockchain. Each producer will have a personal account with Pavo-certified goods that can be purchased. The marketplace will be available both on desktop and a mobile app, thus users will be able to buy goods wherever they like. Both buyers and sellers will be able to rate the products and services.
Frowers will have to buy the equipment and pay a subscription fee to use the platform. All participants will pay transaction fees. All smart contracts will be executed with Pavo tokens. They will be automatically converted on the platform.
Blockchain, together with smart contracts, machine learning and AI technologies employed on the platform may streamline and increase the efficiency of crop cultivation and distribution processes for producers, as well as give fresh impetus to market development. Buyers will receive all the necessary information on products and the conditions they were grown in. Hyperledger Fabric will help reduce transaction times and make sure the system is secure and manageable for each user. As per the roadmap, the fully-fledged marketplace will be launched as early as the end of 2019.
Global population and product consumption show annual increases, whereas actual expansion of farming croplands is limited. This gives momentum to high tech companies in the agricultural industry. As per the J’son & Partners Consulting report, over the period between 2010 to 2016 the number of AgTech startups increased from 20 to 1300. This segment also saw significant investment influx [https://www.agweb.com/article/agfunder-names-top-10-agtech-deals-in-2017/].
The smart agriculture market alone is projected to grow from $5.18 billion in 2016 to $11.23 billion by 2022, at a compound annual growth rate of 13.27% between 2017 and 2022. [https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/PressReleases/smart-agriculture.asp]
According to the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) survey [https://forbes.kz/leader/bcg_reyting_samyih_innovatsionnyih_kompaniy_mira] more than 3/4 of a sample of 1500 executives stated that innovations were their top priority. Moreover, as per the J’son & Partners Consulting report [http://json.tv/ict_telecom_analytics_view/internet-veschey-v-selskom-hozyaystve-agriculture-iot-aiot-mirovoy-opyt-keysy-primeneniya-i-ekonomicheskiy-effekt-ot-vnedreniya-v-rf-20170621045316], Goldman Sachs anticipate that by 2050, state-of-the-art technologies could help increase global crop yield by 70%.
The medical and recreational cannabis market is booming right now (annual growth rate is more than 25%) [http://primevision.group/analiticheskij-otchet-po-industrii-medicinskogo-i-rekreacionnogo-kannabisa/].
When the United Nations (UN) adopted the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs on March 30, 1960 [http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/single-convention.html] and incorporated “cannabis, cannabis resin, extracts and tinctures” into their Yellow List [http://www.incb.org/incb/en/narcotic-drugs/Yellowlist_Forms/yellow-list.html], it was recommended to ban its use completely, except for medical, research and production needs (industrial hemp fibers and grains).
Since the 1970s the US National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) [http://norml.org/] has been pushing for the decriminalization and legalization of recreational cannabis. Since the 1990s, a lot of countries have been adopting more relaxed cannabis laws.
For example, Israel (1994), Denmark (2011) Austria, Macedonia, Croatia, Romania, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Turkey, and several other countries legalized medical cannabis (it can be purchased in special pharmacies with a prescription).
The following countries have decriminalized marijuana: Spain (February 1992), Portugal (July 1, 2001), the Netherlands (1972), Belgium (1998), Great Britain (2002), the Czech Republic (January 1, 2010), Malta (2015), Ecuador (2008), Columbia, Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Cambodia, Chili, Jamaica and Australia.
In December 2013 Uruguay became the first country to permit the purchase, selling, growing and smoking of cannabis. Canada may become the second one, in July 2018 [http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/marijuana-legal-bill-1.4069178]. Twenty-nine American states have legalized medical cannabis [https://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000881]. Nine of these states have also legalized recreational cannabis [https://marijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=006868]. At the same time, cannabis still remains illegal under federal law [https://www.dea.gov/druginfo/ds.shtml].
Over the past ten years attitudes towards cannabis have changed; medical and recreational marijuana is becoming more and more popular all over the world. As per the Brightfield Group report, [https://www.brightfieldgroup.com/plans/canada-international] this market will have a $31 bln yield by the beginning of 2021. Cowen Washington Research Group is even more optimistic and anticipates a $50 bln profit [https://www.forbes.com/sites/debraborchardt/2016/09/22/cannabis-attracting-mainstream-research-analysts/#1991c8c13123]. According to the Brightfield Group report [https://www.forbes.com/sites/monazhang/2017/11/07/global-marijuana-market-31-billion-investors-cautious/#240e982f7297] right now the USA is the global leader with 90% of market share, however this percentage will have dropped to 57% by 2021. This is connected to the fact that cannabis is prohibited under federal regulations and the recreational and medical cannabis market is facing an influx of startups from Latin America, Canada, Europe, and Israel.
The number of companies involved in the production and distribution of cannabis has increased dramatically over the last 10 years. The medical cannabis market is expected to show 20% or even 35% annual growth over the next 5 years. Currently Canada and the USA jointly have 1028 companies, whose average value is $4.1 mln.
MARIJUANA INDEX [http://marijuanaindex.com/]
Marijuana Startups [https://angel.co/marijuana]
Initially, Pavo is planning to focus on the medical, industrial (hemp) and recreational cannabis industry. After that the team plans to turn their attention to adjacent segments and expand their presence in all the agricultural ecosystem markets.
At the moment there are plenty of AgTech companies in the agricultural market. Large agribusiness corporations are also developing digitized and IoT-based farming technologies.
Here are some of these companies:
Hortau [https://hortau.com/] is a wireless soil moisture monitoring and management platform. It is integrated with Hortau wireless irrigation systems and simple cloud software. The company was founded in 2002.
Pycno [https://www.pycno.co/] offers wireless sensors and stand-alone systems for soil and environment monitoring. The sensors have built-in solar panels. They collect weather data which is further analyzed by the Pycno cloud solution. Pycno also uses local weather station data and satellite images to improve analysis quality.
BrightFarms [https://www.brightfarms.com/] designs, funds and constructs hydroponic high-tech greenhouses in cities and suburbs, employing IoT technologies in the vicinity of their sales outlets. BrightFarms collaborates with Giant, ACME and Pick-n-save supermarkets.
FORBES [https://www.forbes.com/sites/maggiemcgrath/2017/06/28/the-25-most-innovative-ag-tech-startups/#13b411864883] has named 25 of the most promising and innovative Ag-Tech startups. All of the companies mentioned above are Pavo’s competitors.
We should also mention cannabis industry companies that employ blockchain. Here Pavo has the following competitors (projects are at different development stages):
Fibonacci [http://cannabisfarm.io/] is a system designed for growing cannabis, herbs, vegetables and other products at home. Fibonacci has integrated iOS and Android apps that enable its users to monitor and manage farming processes.
Grownetics [http://grownetics.co/] is a startup that has developed proprietary operating systems for greenhouse farming. Its solutions include management software and sensors for monitoring lighting, moisture, CO2 and other parameters. All of this is supposed to improve product quality, maximize yield and minimize expense.
Pavo’s competitive advantage is that its team have experience in the development of conventional almond, hazelnut and walnut monitoring systems for the European market.
Other strengths include an operating IoT platform now being tested in California, USA and cultivation equipment to be integrated with the Pavo platform, plus a team of professionals who have relevant backgrounds in the implementation of top notch technologies in the field of IoT, SaaS, AgTech and blockchain. Furthermore Pavo, unlike any of their competitors, provides an encompassing solution that integrates Software-as-a-Service, (SaaS), IoT, Blockchain, and a corresponding cryptocurrency.
Team and Stakeholders
The PavoCoin team consists of 12 people. Information on the key members is provided below.
Allan Young founded TopLine Incubator, one of the largest high tech and startup incubators in the East Bay. Since 2013 he has been a venture partner in Piedmont Partners’ Group Ventures. Between 2012 and 2017 he founded another startup incubator, Runaway, which is now one of the major incubators in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Erhan Cakmak is the chairman of Agrotics INC board; this is a software and analytics platform designed to help farmers. From 2012 to 2017 he was COO of N3N and Bright Pattern Inc. Erhan has also held executive positions in such companies as General Electric as Director for Central Europe, and at Aspect Software as General Manager for Europe and South Africa.
Over the past 16 years Ari has been CTO of NovaTel Networks. There, Ari was responsible for infrastructure design, planning, deployment, integration and management.
Right now Dave holds the following positions: VP of marketing for Agora.io, CMO of dabbah.io, and advisor to Stealth Start-Up. Dave is a marketing expert and has held executive marketing positions in such companies as N3N, Hawq, Ephox, Lyris Inc and EmailLabs over more than 15 years.
Atakan Cetinsoy is VP of BigML, a machine learning cloud service platform. Before that he was an advisor to the same company. From 2006 to 2011 he was VP of Strands and then held the same position for Deem Inc. Ataken worked as a Business Intelligence Manager and CRM architect for Apple. He has also worked as a product manager for Yahoo and FedEx.
From 2016 to 2018 David was the Marketing & Sales Operations Director for N3N. David also has significant experience in product and marketing management. He has worked at such companies as Salesforce, Cisco Systems, Five9, UTStarcom and Alcatel SA.
Basir Momand has been call center general manager and IT and support infrastructure director of CallSocket LP. Basir is involved in software development, call center technologies and IT and tech support.
Since 2009 Mike, a Long Beach State and San Jose State university alumnus, has worked at cultivating high-quality, organic, medical cannabis for his family, friends and community. His interest in cannabis stems from the loss of three family members due to complications and side effects from conventional cancer treatments.
The PavoСoin team has 22 advisors. Here are the most important ones.
Jeff is cofounder of HolodeckVR as well as the chairman and CEO of Woodside Creek. He is a strategic consultant for such projects as 0xcert, R3Sec, Cryptelo, Dragonglass and BitDegree.
Before that he worked for Just Arrive for 7 years. From 1982 to 1989 Jeff was cofounder and director of Electronic Arts (EA).
Keith is the Executive Chairman of Accelerated Digital Ventures, an investment platform. He is a consultant to the following projects: Convergence of 4 Dimensions LLC, Blockchain.aero Technology Consortium, Ponder, PATRON, R_Block and SocialMedia.Market. Keith has been a member of the advisory team for ContextGrid, Energi Mine, Crypterium, Fluz Fluz Global and ICOBox. From 2005 to 2016 Keith founded and worked for Archimedes Labs.
Nick Evdokimov founded ICOBox, which has successfully completed more than 40 ICOs. He has held the CEO position for such companies as Cryptonomos, Appintop Corp and AdtoApp Corp.
The PavoCoin team are professionals with varied experience and backgrounds. It is worth noting that there are marketing and technical experts both in the team and among the advisors. It is positive that some team members, such as Erhan Cakmak, also have a specific background in agriculture and cannabis (Mike Booker).
PavoСoin is collaborating with one Swiss (Walder Wyss Ltd) and two American (Sideman Bancroft and Paul Hastings LLP) law firms.
A smart contract repository is available on Github [https://github.com/pavocoin/ERC20/blob/master/PAVO.sol]:
Token name - PavoCoin
Symbol - PAVO
As the white paper states, PavoCoin (PAVO) is an ERC20 Ethereum blockchain-compatible utility token. Ecosystem participants can use PAVO for the following:
- mutual payments (tokens will be the only payment method)
- Pavo SaaS fee payments (other currencies are also accepted, but participants get a 10% discount when paying in PAVO)
- payments for marketing and advertising on the platform (tokens will be the only payment method)
- voting on incentive distribution and platform policy, as well as dispute resolutions
- participant rewards and loyalty programs.
We think that the PAVO token could become popular with platform users, as it is a safe and efficient fee payment method. Some services can only be paid for in PAVO (for instance marketing and advertising on the platform). This will encourage different parties to buy the tokens.
Analysis of Factors Affecting the Future Value of the Token
The PAVO platform will be using the infrastructural PavoCoin token. Its appeal depends on the volume circulating in the PAVO ecosystem. Currency circulation is determined by the following factors:
- The number of active ecosystem participants
- PAVO product usage
- The introduction of additional PAVO services paid for with PAVO tokens.
An alpha version of the platform will become available in April 2018. Tokens will start to circulate immediately after ICO completion because users will have to pay subscription fees. Thus tokens may be in immediate demand.
The beta version of the PAVO platform using hyperledger will be released in the third quarter of 2018. From this moment on, all growth cycle data will be stored using blockchain. The platform will be able to confirm and host PAVO-certified products. At this point, the improved sensors and services available on the platform are the optimal functionality in the medium term. Launch of the fully-featured platform is scheduled for the second quarter of 2019.
Increase in the number of functions and participants will result in higher token demand. The PAVO team have payed special attention to methods for attracting new platform users and helping to promote their equipment among cannabis growers. The team has envisaged financial support for growers, i.e. they will be able to install and use the PAVO IoT platform for free until 12 months after the ICO. This financial incentive, together with the marketing campaign, aims to attract up to 1000 growers over the first year. In 12 months producers will be paying PAVO subscription fees themselves. This will increase the volume of tokens circulating on the platform and make them more appealing.
The developers have foreseen other measures to stimulate token usage:
- An incentive of 10% discount for subscription fee payment
- Mutual payments and marketing fees require PAVO tokens
- Token rewards for participants who assist platform development the most. Rewards will be allocated from the Community Reserve fund, where tokens are blocked for six months.
- 80% of all tokens the team hold will be blocked for a year. After that they will be unblocked monthly over the 2 subsequent years. 20% will be unblocked quarterly within the first year, i.e. 1.5 mln tokens each quarter (0.75% of total issued supply). The volume of tokens unblocked quarterly in relation to the total issued volume is not large, thus it will not have any major effect on PAVO token prices.
However, there are some negative aspects that could affect Pavo token prices:
Firstly the pre-sale and ICO 33% bonus. The pre-sale requires a minimum transaction of $5000, whereas the ICO has no such requirements but offers the same bonus. Identical discount conditions could result in an influx of minor speculators and drive away more serious investors from the early sale.
Secondly, the Controlled Reserve Fund, for which 20% of total token supply is allocated. Despite the fact that this fund envisages a 6-month token blockage; after this they will be unblocked and used for the company’s strategic objectives. These tokens might reach the market and thus cause a token price decrease.
Investment Risk Analysis
The white paper states that listing on an exchange will only occur if, and when, doing so makes sense for users and will not result in speculation in the token. Market speculation is inevitable, especially when there is a 33% bonus and no minimum transaction requirement. Such conditions might make the token listing process slower or even prevent it from happening at all.
PAVO’s developers want their project to have 20% of the cannabis market share as well as 10% of the agricultural market. This seems too ambitious because there are plenty of other traditional and blockchain companies in the market already which have failed to reach such a market share in the course of their lifetimes.
The cannabis market is inextricably linked with law enforcement. (The team stresses that the company never takes possession of, and never touches, cannabis nor any other crop.) Despite professional legal advisors on the team, we cannot ignore or eliminate compliance risks. They become the primary concern in transactions between the USA and countries where cannabis use and sales are banned or otherwise limited.
The information contained in the document is for informational purposes only. The views expressed in this document are solely personal stance of the ICOrating Team, based on data from open access and information that developers provided to the team through Skype, email or other means of communication.
Our goal is to increase the transparency and reliability of the young ICO market and to minimize the risk of fraud.
We appreciate feedback with constructive comments, suggestions and ideas on how to make the analysis more comprehensive and informative.